Wednesday, March 11, 2020
The Plague Around the year 542 AD a great plague came to Constantinople that so gripped the city and eventually the rest of Europe that it has altered the course of history completely. The plague reached Constantinople, the capital of Rome, during the reign of Emperor Justinian, 15 years after he took power. While we will never know the total number of people who perished from the plague it is estimated that at its height the daily death count reached 10,000 people or more. Most of the information that we have today about the Plague and its origins was written by a man named Procopius who was a legal advisor to a General named Belisarius. Procopius journeyed with Belisarius throught the Mediterranean area around the time the plague exploded. Procopius recorded his observations on how the disease effected the people, and how it ran its course, and because of his accounts, the whole of Europe eventually awakened to the reality and impending doom of the disease spreading everywhere. From the records we have today we are able to see that the first place the plague was really noticed was the Egyptian harbor town of Pelusium. The town, as most towns throughout Europe and the Mediterranean area, had a large problem with rats. Unknown to the people of that era, rats were the medium through which the disease spread from person to person, city to city, and throughout the continent. It first spread to Alexandria as it work its way northward towards Palestine. Procopius writes that the disease after that point Ã¢â¬Å"seemed to spread all over the world.Ã¢â¬ His perception of events was that the plague was Ã¢â¬Å"so overwhelming that the human race appeared close to annihilation.Ã¢â¬ As mentioned previously, the people alive in that age were not aware that the disease was being spread by rats. They had no idea how a person got infected, or how to prevent communion of the disease. The plague was caused by bacteria and parasites that lived in rats as the... Free Essays on The Plague Free Essays on The Plague The Plague Around the year 542 AD a great plague came to Constantinople that so gripped the city and eventually the rest of Europe that it has altered the course of history completely. The plague reached Constantinople, the capital of Rome, during the reign of Emperor Justinian, 15 years after he took power. While we will never know the total number of people who perished from the plague it is estimated that at its height the daily death count reached 10,000 people or more. Most of the information that we have today about the Plague and its origins was written by a man named Procopius who was a legal advisor to a General named Belisarius. Procopius journeyed with Belisarius throught the Mediterranean area around the time the plague exploded. Procopius recorded his observations on how the disease effected the people, and how it ran its course, and because of his accounts, the whole of Europe eventually awakened to the reality and impending doom of the disease spreading everywhere. From the records we have today we are able to see that the first place the plague was really noticed was the Egyptian harbor town of Pelusium. The town, as most towns throughout Europe and the Mediterranean area, had a large problem with rats. Unknown to the people of that era, rats were the medium through which the disease spread from person to person, city to city, and throughout the continent. It first spread to Alexandria as it work its way northward towards Palestine. Procopius writes that the disease after that point Ã¢â¬Å"seemed to spread all over the world.Ã¢â¬ His perception of events was that the plague was Ã¢â¬Å"so overwhelming that the human race appeared close to annihilation.Ã¢â¬ As mentioned previously, the people alive in that age were not aware that the disease was being spread by rats. They had no idea how a person got infected, or how to prevent communion of the disease. The plague was caused by bacteria and parasites that lived in rats as the...
Sunday, February 23, 2020
Micro economics price in a competitive market - Essay Example A sales subsidy, paid on a per unit basis to sellers, creates a subsidy wedge between the price that the market will pay (P1), and the price that the suppliers will receive (P2). The per-unit subsidy will also shift the supply curve to the right, from S1 to S2, depending on the magnitude of the subsidy. The benefit of the price subsidy is usually shared by the market buyers and the suppliers, with the allocation of the benefits depending on the balance of the elasticities of the demand and supply for the product. B. From society's point of view, the per-unit subsidy paid to the sellers will prove to be more beneficial than the statutory minimum price that is set above the market-clearing price. The subsidy shifts the supply curve to the right, and provides either (or both) the buyers (market) and the sellers (suppliers) benefits from the subsidy. On the other hand, the price floor set above the market-clearing price creates surpluses, leading to an inefficient allocation of resources and to the unfortunate scenario where the government will be forced to purchase the surplus goods.
Friday, February 7, 2020
Team Work and Leadership in Construction - Literature review Example Outcomes are associable with aims. The main objective of teamwork is the development through sustainability, delivery of profit to all the shareholders, adding value to customers and rewarding careers to all the team players. Belbin is recognizable for the concept of team roles, which base facts on behavior patterns exhibited in teams. The theory of Beblian Team states that when individuals understand the capability of the role they should play and are conscious of their abilities and strengths in a team, it helps tackle the team environment demands. Roles in Belbins team within the construction environment derive their basis on intellectual styles, behaviors in teams and personality traits. Whereas the Belbins theory helps in identifying characters of human beings in terms of self-confidence, the theory of Tuckman explains that for people to be cohesive and goal oriented, they must undergo four stages (Senaratne & Sexton 2011). The stages include, forming, storming, norming and adjo urnment. The theory is helpful in the explanation of behavior and team development in the construction sector. ... Construction excellence has been the driving force of productivity in the United Kingdom. This is attributable to the supposition that the construction industry is participatory through integrated programs based on the processes of delivering and cultural changes (Boller 2005). Researchers have proved that construction excellence through collaborative leadership has improved performance by increasing competition and production (Chu?, & Cushman 2000). This has improved most industryÃ¢â¬â¢s image by changing culture and better engagement with customers and communities (ECI 2004). In the Republic of Philippines, the Naval Mobile Construction has worked in collaboration with the Australian Army Engineers as an element of the Pacific Partnership 2008 (Fryer & Fryer 2004). The programme was part of the civic and humanitarian mission to the South East Asia in which the Seabees conducted engineering civic programmes in Mindanao and Samar cities. The sailors participated in veterinary, dent al and civic programmes in empowering local communities in Philippines. In this aspect, there was a learning curve between the Philippines and the Australian counterparts hence achievement of a learning experience. This took a short time for each party to be acquainted with different trades and techniques. The two teams made great success in development during the training exercise (Green 2011). This was an opportunity in training and imparting leadership, and tactical skills in junior officers to improve building and teamwork in the battalionsÃ¢â¬â¢ leadership. There was confidence that the talented leaders could execute leadership principles amongst themselves through deployment.
Wednesday, January 29, 2020
The Relationship Of Text And Music During The Period From The Early Middle Ages Essay Example for Free
The Relationship Of Text And Music During The Period From The Early Middle Ages Essay In the middle ages, the music was both sacred and secular. Its relationship to text can be inferred from the overwhelming evidence of the manuscripts. Right from the middle ages, music never failed to echo the meaning of text. The composers of the middle ages were more likely to see the relation between text and music as one of abstract architecture, grammatical and syntactic structure,and perhaps even of acoustical properties rather than directly one of meaning. The relationship between text and music was not one of measuring, then there was no reason for one kind of music to be appropriate for one kind of text. Since the words and the music were not related in any semantic or emotional way, a monophonic dance-song, a polyphonic spring-song based on it, a song of praise or a lament song may be indistinguishable in musical style. Renaissance describes the development of civilization that marked the transition from mediaval to modern times. The Renaissance composers used their music to communicate with their audiences. there was a set of shared aural expectations between composers and listeners that governed the relationship between text and music. there was a close relationship between music and poetry and music was capable enough to stir the listeners emotions. Inspired by the classical world, Renaissance composers fit words and music together in an increasingly dramatic fashion which is very much evident in the manuscripts of the Renaissance period. In the Baroque era, music was considered to be a divine art. This idea implied that music was not considered on its merits alone, but a path to divinity. music was understood as a general principle of divine creations. Thus music of the Baroque era related to text as an image, an imitation or an anticipation of the heavenly life or the abode of The Omnipresent. At the end of the Baroque era the relationship of the text and music was as meaningful as the relationship of God with mankind.
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
AfricanAmerican Representation in the Media In Jacqueline Bobo's article, The Color Purple : Black Women as Cultural Readers, she discusses the way in which black women create meaning out of the mainstream text of the film The Color Purple. In Leslie B. Innis and Joe R. Feagin's article, The Cosby Show: The View From the Black Middle Class, they are examining black middle-class responses to the portrayal of black family life on The Cosby Show. In their respective articles, Bobo, and Innis and Feagin are investigating the representation of race, particularly African American race, in the mass media. The chief concerns of their investigations lie in how African Americans deal with the way these representations portray them individually and their social group as a whole. In this paper I will compare the issues in each study, analyze the larger sociopolitical implications of the media representations and apply a similar framework of concerns to my own reception analysis project. In Bobo's article, the chief concerns of the author are "the savage and brutal depiction of black men in the film", "black family instability", and the way that black women embrace the film and use their own reconstructed meaning of it to "empower themselves and their social group," (90,92). Film as a medium starts out with many potential limitations and problems when it comes to representing a whole race of people. No two people are exactly alike no matter what race they come from so there is no way one film can represent all peoples. Unfortunately, many people believe that a certain depiction of black people characterizes all black people, which is certainly not the case. This is very dangerous because this perpetuates stereotyping and discrimination. The viewing public pays for movies and therefore movie directors have to tailor their product so that the majority of viewers will enjoy, and agree with the ideas behind the film. The majority almost always means white America so e ven African American based movies are made for white audiences. Because of this, the representations of blacks in the medium of film are almost always white ideas of who black people are, not who they really are. The film The Color Purple has been the center of controversy since it was made in 1985. Many people feel the film is a terrible portrayal of black family life and that it is stereotypical in its depiction of black men as evil and brutal tyrants who imprison and mentally and verbally abuse woman.
Monday, January 13, 2020
Introduction Lifecycle or lifespan development is the field in psychology that studies how people change with time. These changes could be biological, including body changes and motor skills; cognitive, including thought and language; and psychosocial, including emotions, personality and relationships with other people. Life cycle development starts in the womb at conception and continues throughout the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s life. Other important stages of development are; birth, infancy, adolescence, adulthood, old age and finally death. Though some aspects of development may be strongly influenced by how the fetus develops in the womb, the genes one receives from his/her parents interact with the environmental factors after the individual is born such as the food one eats, parenting, experiences, friends, family relationships, culture and school. All this help us understand the influences that help contribute to growth and development. Our genes are the bio-chemical units of heredity that make ea ch of us a distinctive human being. The genes we share make us people rather than dogs or tulips. But might our individual genetic make-ups explain why one person is outgoing, another is shy, or why one person is slow-witted while another is smart? Some developmental psychologists focus on explaining how our genetic background can determine not only how we look, but also how we behave, how we relate to others i.e. matters of personality. These professionals explore ways to identify how much of our potential as human beings is provided or limited by heredity. In this article weÃ¢â¬â¢ll take a closer look at how biological influences (genes) help shape individual development. WeÃ¢â¬â¢ll learn more about how genetic disorders can impact oneÃ¢â¬â¢s psychology and development and also how our experiences interact with genetics. Lastly weÃ¢â¬â¢ll learn on ways to take care of a child while in the womb and after to ensure they reach their maximum genetic potential. How Biological Influences Determine Development. Development begins at that moment when chromosomes in the sperm and ovum join together in the fallopian tubes to form 23 pairs in an entirely new cell called a zygote. Chromosomes are composed of molecules of DNA containing the genes. Genes are pieces of genetic material that control or influence traits. It is these genes that will guide cell activity for the rest of the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s life. A gene controlling some specific characteristic always appear in the same place (the locus) on the same chromosome in every individual of the same species. For example, the locus of the gene that determines whether a personÃ¢â¬â¢s blood is type A, B or O is on chromosome 9. Genes also determine the nature and function of every cell in the body. For instance, they determine which cells will ultimately become part of the heart and which will become part of the muscles of the leg. It is the genes that establish how different parts of the body will function; how rapidly the heart will beat, or how much strength a muscle will have. The genetic instructions passed down from both parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ influence how an individual develops and the traits they will have. Combinations of genes from the father in the sperm and from the mother in the ovum create a unique genetic blueprint the genotype- all of the genes that a person has inherited-that characterizes that specific individual. The actual expressions of those genes that can be identified by directly observing the individual is the phenotype. The phenotype can include physical traits, such as height and color of the eyes, as well as non-physical traits such as shyness, a high strung temperament or a thirst for adventure. Whether or not a gene is expressed depends on two different things: the interaction of the gene with other genes and the continual interaction between the genotype and the environment. The simplest genetic rule is the dominant-recessive pattern in which a single dominant gene strongly influences phenotype. If a child receives a single dominant gene, for a trait from one parent, the childÃ¢â¬â¢s phenotype will include the trait determined by that gene. In contrast, a childÃ¢â¬â¢s phenotype will include a recessive trait only if she inherits a recessive gene from both parents. Eye color is one example of dominant-recessive genes at work. The gene for brown eyes is dominant and the gene for blue eyes is recessive. If one parent hands down a dominant brown eye gene while the other parent hands down a recessive blue eye gene, the dominant gene will win out and the child will have brown eyes. A personÃ¢â¬â¢s sex is also determined in the womb. An individual inherits 23 pairs of chromosomes. Twenty- two of these pairs of chromosomes, called autosomes, contain most of the genetic information controlling highly individual characteristics like hair color, height, body shape, temperament, aspects of intelligence and also all those characteristics shared by all members of our species, such as pattern of physical development. The twenty-third pair, the sex chromosomes, determines the childÃ¢â¬â¢s sex. One of the two sex chromosomes, the X chromosome, is one of the largest chromosomes in the body and carries a large number of genes. The other, Y chromosome, is quite small and contains only a few genes. Zygotes containing two X chromosome i.e. XX develops into female and zygote containing one X and one Y chromosome i.e. XY develops into male. Genetic Disorders. Though development in the womb usually produces a normal infant, genetic instructions are not infallible and can go off track at times. Sometimes when a sperm or ovum is formed, the number of chromosomes may divide unevenly, causing the organism to have more or less than the normal 23 chromosomes. When one of these abnormal cells joins with a normal cell, the resulting zygote will have an uneven number of chromosomes. In every case, the result is some type of syndrome with a set of distinguishing characteristics. For example, Down Syndrome in this case, the child has three chromosomes at the site of the 21st chromosomes instead of the normal two. This can result to mental retardation and abnormal physical development. How Interaction Between The Genes And The Environment Determine Development. Although genes play an important role in human development, they alone do not determine who we are. It is important to note that the environment an individual is exposed to both in womb and throughout the rest of his or her life can also impact how the genes are expressed. For example, exposure to harmful drugs while in womb can have a dramatic impact on later child development. Exposure to teratogens, which are noxious substances or other factors that can disrupt prenatal development can prevent the individual from reaching his or her inherited potential. For example, prenatal exposure to X rays can disrupt the migration of brain cells, causing mental retardation (Schull, Norton, & Jensh, 1990). Environmental factors such as the food we eat, the air we breathe, the physical and social contexts we experience, our relationships and our continual ongoing interactions at work, at home and at play are necessary for a person to develop well. Heredity and environment work together to produce personÃ¢â¬â¢s intelligence, temperament, height, weight, ability to read and so on. Height is a good example of a genetic trait that can be influenced by environmental factors. While a childÃ¢â¬â¢s genetic code may provide instructions for tallness, the expression of this height might be suppressed if the child has poor nutrition or a chronic illness. Proper Care During And After Pregnancy From the above information we can see that most of an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s characteristics, from sex, eye color, height, intelligence are determined in the womb because of the genes, great care of the foetus is important to ensure the development is not impaired. Genetic codes are not irrevocable signals for this or that pattern of development or this or that disease. The eventual developmental outcome is affected by the specific experiences the individual may have from conception onwards. Maintaining good nutrition and obtaining pre-natal care is necessary. According to Institute of Medicine, 1990 development before and during pregnancy is important to defend against specific defects and diminish overall vulnerability. Mineral and Vitamins including iron, zinc, calcium and vitamin A have been proved to be essential for the normal development of the fetus. Early, competent, pre-conceptual and prenatal care is also vital as they not only help birth defects but also reduces the rate of low- birth weight. Avoiding teratogens is vital to avoiding defects on the unborn infant. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that parents read, sing, talk and play music for their baby inside the womb. It is believed that cognitive development starts inside the womb, and hearing music and parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ voices helps develop a babyÃ¢â¬â¢s emotional state. In addition, many researchers believe that hearing a motherÃ¢â¬â¢s and fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s voices regularly before birth helps babies learn who their parents are so that those voices can better soothe them after they are born. The Mayo Clinic has also published several studies showing that babies, who are read, played music, sung or spoken to regularly have shown signs of being calmer babies, and may have a better emotional connection with their parents or caregivers. After birth environmental factors such as the food we eat, the air we breathe, the physical and social contexts we experience, our relationships and our continual ongoing interactions at work, at home and at play are necessary for a person to develop well. For example while considering the type of parenting, permissive parents set few rules and rarely punish misbehavior. Their children will be less likely to adopt positive standards of behavior. Children raised by authoritarian parents who resort to discipline, might develop low self-esteem and are more socially withdrawn (Kaufman & Cicchetti, 1989). They tend to be more aggressive and are more likely to become juvenile delinquents (Bower, 1990). According to Baumrind, 1993 the best approach to child rearing is authoritative parenting. These parents are warm and loving, yet insist their children behave appropriately. They encourage independence within well-defined limits, show willingness to explain the reasons for the rules, and permit children to verbalize their disagreement with them. Their children are more likely to become socially competent, independent and responsible. Conclusion While some aspects of development may be strongly influenced by biology, environmental influences may also play a role. For example, the timing of when the onset of puberty occurs is largely the results of heredity, but environmental factors such as nutrition can also have an effect. While the genetic instructions a child inherits from his parents may set out a road map for development, the environment can impact how these directions are expressed, shaped or event silenced. The complex interaction of nature and nurture does not just occur at certain moments or at certain periods of time; it is persistent and lifelong. Clearly, genetics have an enormous influence on how a child develops. However, it is important to remember that genetics are just one piece of the intricate puzzle that makes up a childÃ¢â¬â¢s life. Environmental variables, including parenting, culture, education and social relationships also play a vital role. Berger, K. S. (1998). The Developing Person Through the Life Span (4th Ed). New York. Worth Publishers. Berk, E. Laura. (2001). Development through the Life Span. U.S.A. Allyn and Bacon Publishers. Hellen, L. Bee and Boyd, L. Denise. (1989). Life Span Development (3rd Ed). Boston. Allyn and Bacon Publishers. Hellen, L. Bee and Sandra, K. Mitchelle. (1980). The Developing Person: A Life-Span Approach. New York. Harper and Row Publishers. Lester, M. Sdorow and Cheryl, A. Rickabaugh. (2002). Psychology 5th ed. New York. McGraw-Hill.
Saturday, January 4, 2020
In the review Ã¢â¬Å"Drug Use, Drug Possession Arrests, and the Question of Race: Lessons from Seattle,Ã¢â¬ analysts questioned if the connection between racial disparity in drug arrests is linked with the underlying factor of harmful forms of drugs being concentrated in poorer areas. These poorer areas are dominantly known for many communities of different colors, especially African Americans and Latinos. The question of whether or not drug arrest is based upon racial bias is highly argued topic today amongst communities and police force. This article talks about the racial disparity, specifically in Seattle, that surrounds drugs in the form of crack cocaine which shaped the way police identify and arrest criminals. Many experts have theorizedÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦And because of this, the police tend to focus more on crack than any other drug. Crack is an important cause of racially disparate drug possession arrest rates in Seattle. I tend to believe that all types of i llegal narcotics are supposed to be treated equally the same, but the trend of crack cocaine being a higher risk factor for arrest is quite fascinating. A person who does crack cocaine is more likely to be arrested than a person who does heroine in Seattle. An analytical assertion that I found the most interesting is the connection between violence and the crack market. Crack trade has been associated with high levels of systemic violence, which is regulated through the illegal aspects of the drug market. However, in Seattle, only 2.3 percent of crack arrests involved guns, but 25.9 percent of all heroin arrests involved guns. The available evidence indicated that crack arrests are unlikely to involve guns, especially in Seattle. SeattleÃ¢â¬â¢s crack market is not more violent than other drug markets. This evidence challenges the idea that crack trade and violence are consistently coordinated with one another. 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